For diagnosis of a peroneal tendonitis it is necessary a history and a thorough clinical examination. During the peroneal tendonitis clinical examination will see the presence of tendon laxity in touch, the presence of voids, or the thickening or nodules of the peroneal tendon or of some heel bone spurs. Compared the two legs, to discover how the peroneal tendonitis affects the foot and joint mobility. The doctor will look for possible changes in the nerves or blood vessels in the area, such as for example the presence of hypoesthesia (reduced sensitivity).
To identify peroenal tendonitis the doctor will compress the legs: the leg will move when the legs are compressed, helping to identify a tendon rupture; a partial rupture of the tendon can be difficult to diagnose when the pain is minimal and there is a normal mobility; a compression of the calves in this case, can lead to a normal result, but it may feel a defect in the tendon. The doctor will observe the posture and walking: when the tendon is ruptured walking is difficult; the patient is likely to also can not keep his own weight on standing.
This investigation can provide additional data to confirm the diagnosis: the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) used for evaluating peroneal tendonitis.
Most peroneal tendon ruptures occurs during sporting activities and can therefore be prevented. If there were peroneal tendonitis problems in the past, then the patients are advised to do heating and stretching exercise levels: before any strenuous sports, it is recommended to do exercise to heat for 5 to 10 minutes, such as cycling, leg stretching which will prepare the Achilles tendon and the muscles for the further activity; it can also be performed stretching targeted on other muscle groups.
Avoid any sports or physical activities, the body would not cope with. Wear footwear that protects the heel, comfortable and adapted to the physical activity. Wearing heel cushions for heel or other orthopedic devices that reduce the over solicitation of the peroneal tendon. Echography makes the differential diagnosis between peroneal tendonitis and tendon rupture. X-ray assesses the state of the heel.
Risk factors of peroneal tendonitis
Factors that increase the risk of peroneal tendonitis or tendon rupture include:
Sport and physical activity: sport increases the risk of peroneal tendon injuries due to repetitive strain and movement of joints; construction activities or agriculture, may also increase the risk of tendon injury.
Errors in sport training: lack of heating before or after exercise workout, sudden changes in the exercise program, increase the distance or changing the type of running surface on which it runs (from asphalt to sand land, for example) increases the risk of injury of the tendons, causing peroneal tendonitis.
Age: when you age blood irrigation of the tendon lowers; most peroneal tendon rupture occurs after age 30.
Weight: overweight people have increased risk of peroneal tendonitis, due to tendon injuries
Sex: men are more likely than women to have peroneal tendon injuries.
Other factors are:
Previous tendon injury
Previous tendon rupture
Injections of corticosteroids which may lead to tendon weakening
Use of fluoroquinolones, especially those over 60 years using also systemic corticosteroids
Presence of other conditions such as osteoarthritis, gout or rheumatoid arthritis
Chronic dialysis patients or who are waiting for a kidney transplant.
Medical specialists recommended for peroneal tendonitis
The doctors who can diagnose and treat a peroneal tendonitis are:
Specialist physicians in emergency medicine
Family doctors or internships
Orthopedic medical specialists.
For a physical recovery after a peroneal tendonitis, it is indicated a physiotherapist.